بررسی بیماری زغالی بلوط در جنگل‌های بلوط دچار خشکیدگی استان ایلام

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، بخش کشاورزی ، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران.

3 دانشیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

4 استاد پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

DOI: 10.22092/IJFRPR.2018.117129
DOR: 98.1000/1735-0859.1397.16.1.31.1.1576.1605

در سال‌های گذشته خشکیدگی‌های درختان بلوط به‌طور گسترده‌ای در جنگل‌های زاگرس و به‌ویژه در استان ایلام روی داده است و بیماری زغالی بلوط طغیان کرده و موجب آسیب به درختان بلوط شده است. این تحقیق به‌منظور شناسایی قارچ‌های بیماری‌زا، اثبات بیماری‌زایی و بررسی رفتار بیماری‌زایی آنها طی سال‌های 1394-1391 در سطح جنگل‌های استان ایلام اجرا شد. پس از جنگل‌گردشی و بازدیدهای میدانی متعدد در سطح جنگل‌های استان، نمونه‌های متعددی از نسوج آلوده درختان بلوط ایرانی جمع‌آوری و به آزمایشگاه منتقل شد. سپس نمونه‌ها کشت شده و عوامل بیماری‌زا با استفاده از صفات مورفولوژیک و کلیدهای معتبر قارچ‌شناسی شناسایی شد. به‌منظور اثبات بیماری‌زایی قارچ‌های شناسایی‌شده، اقدام به مایه‌زنی آنها به نهال‌های دوساله بلوط گردید. در مرحله نهایی رفتار بیماری‌زایی قارچ‌ها بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که قارچ های عامل بیماری زغالی در جنگل‌های استان ایلام شامل Biscogniauxia mediterranea و Obolarina persica می‌باشند. قارچ‌های مذکور سبب بیماری‌ نهال‌های بلوط مورد آزمایش و خشکیدگی قسمت‌های بالاتر از محل مایه زنی شدند. بررسی رفتار بیماری‌زایی این قارچ‌ها نشان داد که آلودگی آنها از محل مایه‌زنی شروع شده و انتشار آنها در چوب علاوه بر گسترش طولی، به‌صورت عرضی و شعاعی به سمت مغز چوب است، به­طوری‌که آوندهای چوبی و آبکش را درگیر می­کند. با توجه به اثبات بیماری‌زایی این قارچ‌ها و تأثیر آنها در ضعف و خشکیدگی درختان بلوط ایرانی، می‌توان با انجام عملیات آبخیزداری از وقوع تنش خشکی که زمینه‌ساز تهاجم این قارچ‌هاست، جلوگیری کرد و با حذف درختان کاملاً آلوده و خشک مانع گسترش عامل بیماری در منطقه شد.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on oak charcoal disease in dieback affected forests of Ilam province

نویسندگان [English]

  • javad ashrafi 1
  • A. Hosseini 2
  • J. Hosseinzadeh 3
  • M. Mirabolfathi 4
1 Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

      In recent years, widespread tree dieback simultaneously with charcoal oak disease have occurred in Zagros forest especially in Ilam province. They dramatically  caused damage to oak trees. This research was carried out to identify pathogenic fungi, to prove the pathogenicity and to investigate their pathogenic behavior during 2012-2015 in the forests of Ilam province. After several field observations across the forests of Ilam province, several samples were collected from infected parts of Persian Oak trees and transferred to the laboratory. Then, the samples were cultured to screen the pathogenic agents identified using morphological traits and validated by fungi keys. In order to prove the pathogenicity of the identified fungi, they were inoculated on two-year-old oak seedlings. In the final stage, the pathogenic behavior of fungi was studied. The results showed that fungi causing charcoal diseases in the forests of Ilam province were Biscogniauxia mediterranea and Obolarina persica. Furthermore, the fungi caused the disease on oak seedlings with dieback symptoms on the sections areas above the inoculum site. The study of the pathogenicity behavior of these fungi showed that their contamination began from inoculation site and developed in the wood, in addition to longitudinal extension, the hyphae colonized in transverse and radial directions towards the heartwood, so that it affects the xylem and phloem vessels. Considering the pathogenicity prove of these fungi and their contribution to the weakness and dieback of Persian oak trees, it would be possible to reduce the oak losses by eradicating the dead trees to prevent fungal spore spreading in the region.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Charcoal Disease
  • Ilam forests
  • oak decline
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