اهمیت قارچ‌های ساپروکسیلیک و عوامل مؤثر در تنوع و فراوانی آنها در اکوسیستم‌های جنگلی- با نگاهی بر مهمترین قارچ‌های ساپروکسیلیک جنگل اسالم استان گیلان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای قارچ‌شناسی، گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

امروزه در جنگل‌شناسی همگام با طبیعت، حفظ تنوع زیستی با تأکید بر حفاظت از جنگل‌ها به‌عنوان یک منبع با ذخایر ژنتیکی ارزشمند، بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. خشکه‌دار به‌عنوان یک زیستگاه، مهمترین عامل در تنوع و فراوانی قارچ‌های ساپروکسیلیک در اکوسیستم‌های جنگلی است. بهره‌برداری‌های بی‌رویه و برنامه‌های مدیریتی که در جنگل‌ها اعمال می‌شوند، حجم و تنوع خشکه‌دارها را با کاهش قابل ‌توجهی مواجه کرده‌اند، این موضوع، تنوع و فراوانی قارچ‌های ساپروکسیلیک را در معرض خطرات جدی قرار داده است. در این مطالعه، 29 گونه قارچ ساپروکسیلیک متعلق به 15 خانواده از شاخه بازیدیومایکوتا از جنگل اسالم استان گیلان در شمال ایران جمع‌آوری شد. شناسایی گونه‌ها با بررسی خصوصیات میکروسکوپی و ماکروسکوپی آنها و با استفاده از کلیدهای شناسایی معتبر انجام شد. طبق نتایج این پژوهش، خانواده Polyporaceae و گونهversicolor  Trametes به‌ترتیب با 31 درصد و 4/18 درصد بیشترین فراوانی را در بین سایر خانوداه‌ها و گونه‌های جمع‌آوری‌شده به خود اختصاص داد. همچنین در این مطالعه، به اهمیت قارچ‌های ساپروکسیلیک، معرفی خشکه‌دار به‌عنوان زیستگاه و عوامل کلیدی دخیل در تنوع این قارچ‌ها در اکوسیستم‌های جنگلی پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The importance of saproxylic fungi and the affecting factors on their diversity and abundance in forest ecosystems - Referring to the most important saproxylic fungi in Asalem forest, Guilan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Ranjbar 1
  • E. Mohammadi Goltapeh 2
  • S. M. Zamani 3
  • M. Pedram 4
  • M. E. Farashiani 3
1 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran,
4 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Today, in near-to-nature forestry, biodiversity conservation, with emphasis on forests conservation, as a valuable genetic resource, has received much attention. Deadwood, as a habitat, plays a key role in diversity and abundance of saproxylic fungi in forest ecosystems. The uncontrolled exploitation, and the management programs applied in forests, have significantly reduced the deadwood volumes and diversity, jeopardizing diversity and abundance of saproxylic fungi. In this study, 29 saproxylic fungal species belonging to 15 families from the phylum Basidiomycota were collected from Asalem forest, Guilan province, northern Iran. The recovered species were identified based upon their morphological characters, using available identification keys. The results showed that the family Polyporaceae (31%) and the species Trametes versicolor (18.4%) have the highest abundance between other families and identified species, respectively. The importance of saproxylic fungi, introduction of deadwood, as a habitat and a key factor in biodiversity of saproxylic fungi in forest ecosystems, have also been discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Basidiomycota
  • biodiversity
  • deadwood
  • near-to-nature forestry
  • saproxylic fungi
  • Asalem forests
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