تأثیر ذخیره نزولات جوی بر بهبود وضعیت درختان بلوط ایرانی دچار خشکیدگی (مطالعه موردی: جنگل‌های چوار استان ایلام)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، دانشیار علوم جنگل، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام،، ایلام، ایران

2 مربی پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

چکیده

تنش خشکی شدید، موجب محدود شدن رشد گونه­های گیاهی ازجمله درختان بلوط شده و همزمان با شروع ضعف، هجوم آفات و امراض و در نهایت مرگ آنها اجتناب‌ناپذیر است. بهره­گیری از روش­های ذخیره نزولات، آب مورد نیاز رشد گیاه را در خاک فراهم می­کند. در این تحقیق امکان استفاده از دو روش ذخیره نزولات جوی بصورت بانکت­های خطی و هلالی برای مقابله با شرایط بحرانی جنگل­های در معرض خطر خشکیدگی بلوط، واقع در بخش چوار استان ایلام، در مقایسه با شاهد (بدون ذخیره) در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار و 3 تیمار بررسی شد. در ابتدا مشخصات درختان، وضعیت خاک و میزان رطوبت آن اندازه­گیری شد و در طول دوره چهارساله هم مقادیر رطوبت خاک ماهانه و وضعیت سلامت درختان ارزیابی و ثبت شد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که رطوبت خاک در سال کم­بارش تقریباً متناسب با میزان کاهش بارندگی کاهش می­یابد، به‌طوری‌که در ماه­های گرم، بحران کاهش رطوبت حتی به عمق بیش از یک متری خاک می­رسد. مقایسه تغییرات میانگین رطوبت خاک حکایت از اثر معنی­دار روش­های ذخیره باران در افزایش رطوبت خاک به میزان 21 درصد در روش بانکت خطی و 39 درصد در روش بانکت هلالی داشت. بررسی تغییر درجه شادابی و سلامت درختان نشان داد که بین تیمار ذخیره نزولات و تیمار شاهد در سطح اعتماد 95 درصد اختلاف معنی­دار وجود دارد که حکایت از تأثیر مثبت ذخیره نزولات در تغییر درجه سلامت درختان دچار خشکیدگی دارد. بنابراین ذخیره نزولات جوی برای افزایش رطوبت خاک و بهبود سلامت و شادابی درختان دچار خشکیدگی، قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The impact of rainwater harvesting on improving the condition of Iranian Oak declined trees (Case study: Chavar forests of Ilam province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Hoseinzadeh 1
  • M. Mohammad pour 2
  • A. Aazami 2
چکیده [English]

Severe drought stress restricts the growth of plant species such as oak trees and at the onset of weakness, invasion of pests and diseases and ultimately death is inevitable. The use of rainfall storage techniques provides the water needed for plant growth in the soil. This study aimed to examine the possibility of using two small water catchment (Linear terrace and Crescent pond), to cope with the critical conditions of oak forests, located in Chavar section of Ilam province; comparing to the control (without storage) in a randomized complete block design. Before running the storage systems, trees characteristics, as well as soil and moisture content were measured and during the 4-year period, monthly soil moisture and health status of the trees were recorded. Experimental results showed that soil moisture decreased in proportion to the amount of rainfall in the low season, so that in hot months, the moisture loss crisis reaches even more than one meter deep. Comparison of mean soil moisture changes showed significant effect of rain storage methods on soil moisture content by 21% in linear banquet method and 39% in crescent banquet method. Evaluation of the degree of vitality and health of the trees showed that there was a significant difference between the treatment of rainfed storage and the control treatment at 95% confidence level, indicating the positive effect of the rainfed storage on the health of the trees. Therefore, the use of water catchment systems to store the precipitation is recommended to increase soil moisture and improve the health and vitality of the declined trees.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oak dieback
  • water storage
  • linear terrace
  • Crescent pond
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