علل بروز تعارض در منابع‎ طبیعی از دیدگاه بهره‌برداران و کارشناسان در حوزه‌های آبخیز سفیدرود و پلرود در استان گیلان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه منابع طبیعی، واحد خلخال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خلخال، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه منابع طبیعی، واحد خلخال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خلخال، ایران

3 دانش‌آموخته دکتری علوم مرتع، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

چکیده

تعارض در منابع طبیعی از اختلاف نظر بر سر میزان دسترسی، کنترل و استفاده از منابع طبیعی پیش می‌آید. هدف این تحقیق شناخت علل مؤثر در بروز تعارض بین کنشگران ذی‌نفع در مدیریت منابع طبیعی بود. در این مطالعه، مؤلفه‌های حقوقی، مدیریتی، بهره‌برداری و اجتماعی از دیدگاه کارشناسان و بهره‌برداران در حوزه‌های آبخیز جنگلی پایین‌دست سفیدرود و پلرود در استان گیلان بررسی شد. روش تحقیق از نوع کمی و پیمایشی بود. 173 پرسش‌نامه توسط کارشناسان منابع طبیعی و بهره‌برداران تکمیل شد. پایایی پرسش‌نامه برای همه دسته گویه‎های بالای 9/0 به دست آمد. از آزمون‎های تی‌تست برای مقایسه دیدگاه دو گروه استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد، بین دیدگاه بهره‌برداران و کارشناسان دولتی از نظر عوامل مؤثر در تعارض، اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود دارد. مهمترین مؤلفه‌های مؤثر در افزایش تعارض در این منطقه از دیدگاه بهره‌برداران، نقص قوانین، قطع درختان، مالکیت شورایی مراتع، کم‌رنگ بودن حضور زنان و پایین بودن همیاری است. از نظر کارشناسان، کمبود قوانین، نداشتن تعاونی مرتع‌داری، عدم انطباق طرح‎های آبخیزداری با شرایط اکولوژیک و کمبود همیاری در بین مردم معرفی شده است. پایین بودن آگاهی بهره‌برداران از سوی هر دو گروه تأیید شد، ولی مسائلی از قبیل چرای زودرس، دام مازاد، شخم زیراشکوب و اراضی ملی از سوی بهره‌برداران به‌عنوان عوامل تخریب مراتع و تعارض شناخته نشد. کارشناسان نیز به عوامل مهمی که منجر به تعرض در این منطقه شده است، از قبیل تغییر کاربری اراضی و واگذاری‌ها صحه نگذاشتند. درواقع هر دو گروه به عواملی که گروه آنها می‌تواند در افزایش تعارض مؤثر باشد، اذعان نکردند. از نظر مدیریتی نیز هر دو گروه، مؤثرترین روش کاهش تضاد را قرق جنگل‌ها و مراتع و پس از آن مدیریت مشارکتی اعلام کرده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Causes of conflict toward natural resource management as perceived by stakeholders and experts, in Sefidroud and Polroud basins, Guilan province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Kasaei 1
  • M. Maleki 2
  • M. Hosseini nasab 3
1 Department of Natural Resources, Khalkhal Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal, Iran
2 Department of Natural Resources, Khalkhal Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal, Iran
3 Department of Rangeland Management, Faculty of Environment, Rangeland and Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
چکیده [English]

Conflict in natural resources arises from the disagreement over the availability, control, and use of the natural resources. This study aimed to identify the effective causes of conflict between stakeholders in natural resources management. In this study, legal, managerial, exploitation, and social components were examined from the perspectives of both experts and stakeholders in the forest watersheds downstream of Sefidrood and Polrud in Guilan province. The research was conducted basd on quantitative and survey methods. The natural resource experts and exploiters completed 173 questionnaires. The reliability of the questionnaire for all categories of items was more than 0.9. T-test was applied to compare the views of the two groups. The results showed a significant difference between the views of exploiters and government experts in terms of the factors affecting the conflict. The most important components for increasing the conflict in this region from stakeholders' perspective are the law-breaking, cutting-down trees, council ownership of pastures, the low presence of women in this field, and low cooperation. According to the experts, lack of laws, lack of rangeland union, non-compliance of watershed management plans with the ecological conditions, and low collaboration between people have been introduced. Both groups confirmed the low awareness of the exploiters, but issues such as early grazing, accumulated livestock, understory agriculture, plowing of national land were not recognized by the exploiters as the causes of rangeland destruction and conflict. Experts also did not confirm the important factors such as land-use conversion and assignments that led to the aggression in the region. In fact, both groups did not acknowledge the factors that could have contributed to the increase in the conflict. From the managerial point of view, both groups have declared that the most effective way to reduce the conflict is the confinement of forests and pastures and cooperative management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conflict
  • Legal factors
  • Managerial factors
  • Social factors
  • Exploitation
  • Deforestation
-Abedi Sarvestani, A., 2021. Perceptions of the agents of the natural resources protection unit of Golestan province about management methods of conflict with local communities. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 19(1): 141-155 (In Persian).
-Alibeygi, J., 2018. The Study of legal system of rural and tribal communities to exploit natural resources in Iran. Human and environment quaternary, 44(1): 76-93 (In Persian).
-Anabestani, A.A. and Naderi, M., 2018. The survey of challenges of environmental resources management in rural areas (Case study: Binaloud county). Journal of Geography and Environmental Hazard, 28(4): 53-70 (In Persian).
-Ansari, N., Saiyed Akhlaghi Shal, S.J. and Ghasemi, M.H., 2009. Determination of socio-economic factors on natural resources degradation of Iran. Journal of Rangeland and desert research, 15(4): 508-524 (In Persian).
-Ansari, N., Saiyed Akhlaghi Shal, S.J. and Fayaz, M., 2007. Effects of legal and organization factors, resource management and social groups on the degradation of renewable natural resources. Journal of rangeland, 1(4): 423-438 (In Persian).
-Avatefi Hemmat, M., Shamekhi, T., Zobeyri, M., Arab, D.R. and Ghazi tabatabaie, M., 2013. Forest degradation: an investigation of forestry organization experts and local herders’ mental models. Journal of forest and wood products, 66(1): 39-54(In Persian).
-Barnett, J., 2000. Destabilizing the environment-conflict thesis. Review of International Studies, 26: 271-288.
-Bayramov, A., 2017. Review: Dubious nexus between natural resources and conflict. Journal of Eurasian Studies, 9(1): 72-81.
-Bond, J., 2014. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict: The case of Laikipia County, Kenya. Journal of Rural Studies, 34: 117-127.
-Cap-Net., 2005. Conflict resolution and negotiation skills for integrated water resources management. International Network for Capacity Building in Integrated Water Resources Management, 121p.
-Cochran, W., 1977. Sampling Techniques. John Wiley and Sons Press, New York, 422p.
-FAO, 2000. Conflict and Natural Resource Management. Rome, 22p.
-Fayazi, M., 2009. Perceived conflict and its management styles. Journal of Transformation Management, 1(2): 90-110.
-Ghasemi, M. and Karamidehkordi, E., 2017. Analyzing stakeholder’s conflict network in natural resources conversation and exploitation: Case study: the Dorahan and Cheshme Ali watershed. Iranian journal of range and desert research, 24(1): 56-39 (In Persian).
-Ghasemi, M., Karamidehkordi, E. and Ebrahimi, A., 2018. Analyzing social actors' conflict in natural resources management and its impact on rural communities (Case study: Borujen county). Journal of Rural Research, 8(4): 635-648 (In Persian).
-Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation cooperation, 2013. Manual: 3 step for working in fragile and conflict-affected situations (WFCS), Swisspeace, Available online at https://assets.helvetas.ch/ downloads/2013_hsi_ anual_3_steps_wfcs.pdf, checked on 11/28/2016.
-Hubert., N., 2021. The nature of peace: How environmental regulation can cause conflicts. Journal of World Development, 141: 1-12.
-Ibarra, S.N., 2021. Addressing a complex resource conflict: Humans, sea otters, and shellfish in Southeast Alaska. PhD Dissertation, College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 219p.
-Jahdi, R., Darvishsefat, A.A. and Badripour, H., 2020. Wildfire risk and exposure modeling using geographic information system in Khalkhal and Kowsar municipalities. Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards, 7(3): 79-94 (In Persian).
-Janatichenar, M.A. and Kolahi, M., 2018. The conflict between ranchers and natural resources management. 7th National Conference on Rangeland and Rangeland Management of Iran, 8-9 May 2018, Alborz, pp. 1-17 (In Persian).
-Karamidehkordi, E. and Babaee, R., 2018. Analyzing rural women's information needs for sustainable natural resources management (A case study in the ghezel tapeh watershed in Zanjan province). Iran Agricultural Extension and Education Journal, 14(1): 163-184 (In Persian).
-Kolahi, M., 2019. Environmental knowledge: from knowledge to ability. Agricultural Education Research Press, Tehran, 159p (In Persian).
-Kolahi, M., 2021. Natural resources stakeholders. Journal of Water and Sustainable Development, 18(1): 19-30 (In Persian).
-Kronenburg García, A., 2017. Exploring the ‘layeredness’ of recurring natural resource conflicts: The role of Loita Maasai leadership in the Naimina Enkiyio Forest conflicts in Kenya. Land Use Policy, 65: 66-77.
-Mahmoodi, J., Mirbozorgi, S.A., Heidari, Gh. and Rayati, M., 2012. Indicators affecting the grazing management project in Mazandaran summer rangelands from the perspective of natural resources experts. Journal of Natural Ecosystem of Iran, 2(3): 49-59 (In Persian).
-Marvi Mohajer, M.R., 2005. Silviculture. Tehran University Press, Tehran, 387p (In Persian).
-Mohseni, H., 2017. Environmental justice and protection of forest in criminal unification judgment of supreme court. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Studies, 4(1): 85-109 (In Persian).
-Rahmani, A., 2018. Managment of rangelands requires the development of a new road map. Iran Nature, 3(3): 70-77 (In Persian).
-Rahmani, A., 2019. Investigation on the issue of "fire" in the country's natural resources. Iran Nature, 4(1): 57-77 (In Persian).
-Reichel, C., Frömming, U.U. and Glaser, M., 2009. Conflicts between stakeholder groups affecting the ecology and economy of the Segara Anakan region. Regional Environmental-Change, 9(4): 335-343.
-Rudgarmi, P., 2020. Investigation on the legal problems in natural resources conservation in Iran. 10th National Conference on Environment, Energy and Sustainable Natural Resources, 8-9 july, Tehran, 14p (In Persian).
-Tatar, M., Papzan, A.H. and Ahmadvand, M., 2018. Agricultural water conflict management in gawshan basin: solutions based on cooperation strategy. Iran Agricultural Extension and Education Journal, 14(1): 91-111 (In Persian).
-Vesco, P., Dasgupta, S., De Cian, E. and Carraro, C., 2020. Natural resources and conflict: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Ecological Economics, 172: 1-15.