بررسی پیامدهای ساختاری احداث سد شفارود بر پوشش جنگلی حوزه آبخیز شفارود با استفاده از محاسبه سنجه‌های اکولوژی سیمای سرزمین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی ، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان ، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران

3 استادیار، پژوهشکده محیط‌زیست، جهاد دانشگاهی، گیلان، ایران

چکیده

    پروژه­های سدسازی می­تواند از طریق کاهش یکپارچگی و افزایش ازهم­گسیختگی منطقه بر عملکرد سیمای سرزمین تأثیر بگذارد و در پی آن ساختار محیط­زیست منطقه را متأثر کند. کمی­سازی این تغییرات با استفاده از سنجه­ها انجام می‌شود و گوناگونی آنها باعث کاربرد گسترده آنها در مطالعات اکولوژیکی و حل مسائل کاربردی زیست­محیطی می­شود. هدف این تحقیق بررسی روند تغییرات ساختاری پوشش جنگلی در حوزه آبخیز شفارود با توجه به احداث سد شفارود است. به این منظور سه تصویر ماهواره­ لندست در فصل اوج رشد پوشش گیاهی متعلق به سال­های 2013، 2000 و 2017 استفاده شد و تصحیح­های هندسی و اتمسفری اعمال و با روش طبقه­بندی حداکثر احتمال، نقشه کاربری اراضی منطقه برای هر مقطع زمانی تهیه شد. نقشه­های کاربری به‌ترتیب دارای صحت کلی و ضریب کاپای بالاتر از 86% و 83/0 بودند. سپس تجزیه‌وتحلیل سنجه­ها شامل مساحت کلاس (CA)، تعداد لکه، حاشیه کل، تراکم حاشیه و میانگین اندازه لکه در سطح کلاس جنگل انجام شد. نتایج بیانگر افزایش ازهم‌گسیختگی و نامساعد شدن شرایط زیستگاهی و جایگزینی گسترده پوشش­های جنگلی با مناطق بدون پوشش است. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که کاهش تعداد لکه‏های جنگلی مابین سال­های 2013 تا 2017، تخریب متمرکز در کوتاه‌مدت در محل احداث پروژه را ایجاد کرده، این در حالی است که هنوز ساختمان سد و نیازمندی­های آن مانند دسترسی­ها کامل نشده است. برای حفظ منابع طبیعی باید روند توسعه را با محدودیت­ها و قابلیت­های اکوسیستم از طریق مطالعات دقیق محیطی، ارزیابی و توضیح پروژه‌ها بر محیط‌زیست و ارائه روش­های کاهش و جبران آثار مخرب پروژه­های توسعه­ای هماهنگ نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Structural Consequences of Shafarood Dam Construction on Forest Cover of Shafarood Watershed Using Landscape Ecology

نویسندگان [English]

  • mandana azizi 1
  • M. Khanmohammadi 2
  • M. Panahandeh 3
1 M.Sc. In environmental, Faculty of Natural resources ,University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Dam construction projects can affect the functioning of the landscape by reducing the integrity and increasing distruption, and consequently, this change in the landscape could affect the function of the environment. Quantifying landscape changes is performed using landscape metrics and their variety makes them to be widely used in ecological studies and solving environmental problems. The purpose of this research was to investigate the trend of structural changes in forest cover in Shafarood watershed due to the construction of Shafarood dam. To ths end, three Landsat satellite images were used during the peak season of vegetation cover in 2000, 2013 and 2017. Geometric and atmospheric corrections were applied to these images. Using the maximum probabilistic classification method, the land use maps of the area for each year were prepared. Land cover maps had overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient higher than 86% and 83%, respectively. The results indicated an increase in the fragmentation and destruction of habitat conditions in the Hirkani forests and an extensive replacement of forest cover with no vegetation areas. The results also showed that the decline in the number of forest patches between 2013 and 2017 caused short-term centralized demolition at the project site, while the construction of dam and related facilities, such as roads and lateral installations have not yet been completed. To protect natural resources, the development process should be coordinated with the constraints and capabilities of the ecosystem through precise environmental studies, the assessment and explanation of the environmental impacts of the projects on the environment, and the presentation of approaches for reducing and mitigation of the destructive effects of development projects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Landscape Ecology
  • forest cover
  • landscape metrics
  • Shafarood dam
  • Satellite Landsate
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